Era – эра, время, период
Chronology – времяисчисление, летосчисление, хронология
Ancestry – предки, прародители
Artifact – артефакт, искусственный объект
Research – (научное) исследование, изучение
Irreversibly – безвозвратно, бесповоротно
Compiled – собранный
Manuscript – манускрипт, рукопись
Contemporary – современник, сверстник, ровесник
Chronicle – хроника, летопись
Timeframe – период времени (в течение которого что-л. произошло или должно произойти), временные рамки (определённые для чего-л.)
To justify – оправдывать, находить оправдание, извинять
To fabricate – создавать, придумывать, изобретать
To assert – утверждать, заявлять, доказывать (что-л.)
To invent – изобретать, создавать, выдумывать
To cement – крепить, скреплять (об отношениях между людьми), сплачивать
To contradict – противоречить, возражать, опровергать
To proof – подтверждать, доказывать
To contain – содержать в себе, включать
To reach – передавать, подавать
1. To fabricate – to make up a story or piece of information in order to make someone believe something that is not true.
2. Chronology – the order in which a series of events happened or will happen.
3. To cement – to make a relationship, idea etc., stronger or more certain.
4. Manuscript – a writer’s original pages of a book, article, or document before it is published.
5. To contain – a container, envelope, room etc., that contains something has something inside it.
6. Her coloring was dark, but that was the only vestige of the Jamaican fraction of her ancestry.
7. The interior of the building was in a state which fully justified the opinion he had formed from its external injuries.
8. All that has been taken and compiled into the Bible.
9. He did not contradict me; perhaps he had fallen into a doze.
10. The athletic chronicle of Mordovia will continue and it will be a long and glorious story!
The Silk Road: Connecting the ancient world through trade
A banker in London sends the latest stock info to his colleagues in Hong Kong in less than a second. With a single click, a customer in New York orders electronics made in Beijing, transported across the ocean within days by cargo plane or container ship. The speed and volume at which goods and information move across the world today is unprecedented in history. But global exchange itself is older than we think, reaching back over 2,000 years along a 5,000 mile stretch known as the Silk Road. The Silk Road wasn't actually a single road, but a network of multiple routes that gradually emerged over centuries, connecting to various settlements and to each other thread by thread. The first agricultural civilizations were isolated places in fertile river valleys, their travel impeded by surrounding geography and fear of the unknown. But as they grew, they found that the arid deserts and steps on their borders were inhabited, not by the demons of folklore, but nomadic tribes on horseback. The Scythians, who ranged from Hungary to Mongolia, had come in contact with the civilizations of Greece, Egypt, India and China. These encounters were often less than peaceful. But even through raids and warfare, as well as trade and protection of traveling merchants in exchange for tariffs, the nomads began to spread goods, ideas and technologies between cultures with no direct contact. One of the most important strands of this growing web was the Persian Royal Road, completed by Darius the First in the 5th century BCE. Stretching nearly 2,000 miles from the Tigris River to the Aegean Sea, its regular relay points allowed goods and messages to travel at nearly 1/10 the time it would take a single traveler. With Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia, and expansion into Central Asia through capturing cities like Samarkand, and establishing new ones like Alexandria Eschate, the network of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian culture and trade extended farther east than ever before, laying the foundations for a bridge between China and the West. This was realized in the 2nd century BCE, when an ambassador named Zhang Qian, sent to negotiate with nomads in the West, returned to the Han Emperor with tales of sophisticated civilizations, prosperous trade and exotic goods beyond the western borders. Ambassadors and merchants were sent towards Persia and India to trade silk and jade for horses and cotton, along with armies to secure their passage. Eastern and western routes gradually linked together into an integrated system spanning Eurasia, enabling cultural and commercial exhange farther than ever before. Chinese goods made their way to Rome, causing an outflow of gold that led to a ban on silk, while Roman glassware was highly prized in China. Military expeditions in Central Asia also saw encounters between Chinese and Roman soldiers. Possibly even transmitting crossbow technology to the Western world. Demand for exotic and foreign goods and the profits they brought, kept the strands of the Silk Road in tact, even as the Roman Empire disintegrated and Chinese dynasties rose and fell. Even Mongolian hoards, known for pillage and plunder, actively protected the trade routes, rather than disrupting them. But along with commodities, these routes also enabled the movement of traditions, innovations, ideologies and languages. Originating in India, Buddhism migrated to China and Japan to become the dominant religion there. Islam spread from the Arabian Penninsula into South Asia, blending with native beliefs and leading to new faiths, like Sikhism. And gunpowder made its way from China to the Middle East forging the futures of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughul Empires. In a way, the Silk Road's success led to its own demise as new maritime technologies, like the magnetic compass, found their way to Europe, making long land routes obsolete. Meanwhile, the collapse of Mongol rule was followed by China's withdrawal from international trade. But even though the old routes and networks did not last, they had changed the world forever and there was no going back. Europeans seeking new maritime routes to the riches they knew awaited in East Asia led to the Age of Exploration and expansion into Africa and the Americas. Today, global interconnectedness shapes our lives like never before. Canadian shoppers buy t-shirts made in Bangladesh, Japanese audiences watch British television shows, and Tunisians use American software to launch a revolution. The impact of globalization on culture and economy is indisputable. But whatever its benefits and drawbacks, it is far from a new phenomenon. And though the mountains, deserts and oceans that once separated us are now circumvented through super sonic vehicles, cross-continental communication cables, and signals beamed through space rather than caravans traveling for months, none of it would have been possible without the pioneering cultures whose efforts created the Silk Road: history's first world wide web.
Be creative: The best ad
Be motivated: The house with the golden windows
The little girl lived in a small, very simple, poor house on a hill and as she grew she would play in the small garden and as she grew she was able to see over the garden fence and across the valley to a wonderful house high on the hill – and this house had golden windows, so golden and shining that the little girl would dream of how magic it would be to grow up and live in a house with golden windows instead of an ordinary house like hers.
And although she loved her parents and her family, she yearned to live in such a golden house and dreamed all day about how wonderful and exciting it must feel to live there.
When she got to an age where she gained enough skill and sensibility to go outside her garden fence, she asked her mother is she could go for a bike ride outside the gate and down the lane. After pleading with her, her mother finally allowed her to go, insisting that she kept close to the house and didn’t wander too far. The day was beautiful and the little girl knew exactly where she was heading! Down the lane and across the valley, she rode her bike until she got to the gate of the golden house across on the other hill.
As she dismounted her bike and lent it against the gate post, she focused on the path that lead to the house and then on the house itself…and was so disappointed as she realized all the windows were plain and rather dirty, reflecting nothing other than the sad neglect of the house that stood derelict.
So sad she didn’t go any further and turned, heart broken as she remounted her bike … As she glanced up she saw a sight to amaze her…there across the way on her side of the valley was a little house and its windows glistened golden… as the sun shone on her little home.
She realized that she had been living in her golden house and all the love and care she found there was what made her home the "golden house". Everything she dreamed was right there in front of her nose!
List of questions for discussion
1. Why do people like history?
2. What do you know about your family history?
3. Is there a history of illness in your family?
4. Would you like to be a historian?
5. In his book 1984, George Orwell says: "He who controls the past, controls the future; and he who controls the present, controls the past." Do you agree? Does this apply to countries today?
6. Which people in the world have a troubled history?
7. Do you think history comes back to haunt us?
8. Does your country have a proud or violent history?
9. How would the world change if schools stopped teaching history to children and all history books were destroyed?
10. Sir Winston Churchill said: "Those that fail to learn from history, are doomed to repeat it." Do you agree with him?
11. What do you think of the overall history of your country?
12. Do you think history repeats itself?
13. What period of history would you like to go back and live in?
14. Napoleon Bonaparte said "History is a set of lies agreed upon". Do you agree with this?
15. "Half of writing history is hiding the truth." What do you think of this quote in relation to what was in your school history books?
Для обсуждения данной темы присоединяйтесь к разговорным клубам. Студентам индивидуального курса разговорные клубы предоставляются бесплатно. А если вы предпочитаете обучение в формате разговорных клубов, записывайтесь на групповые занятия.