Hacker – хакер
Grid – решётка, сетка
Technology – техника, технология
Network – сеть
Security – безопасность
Defender – защитник
Penetration – проникновение
System – система, устройство, строй
Cyber – относящийся к компьютерам, информационным технологиям, интернету
Context – контекст
To protect – защищать, охранять
To recruit – набирать, вербовать (в какую-л. организацию, спортивную команду и т. п.)
To destroy – разрушать, сносить, ликвидировать
To perceive – воспринимать, понимать, осознавать
To interpret – объяснять, толковать, интерпретировать
To influence – влиять, воздействовать
To produce – создавать, генерировать, порождать
To record – записывать, регистрировать
To receive – получать, приобретать
To create – производить, создавать, творить
1. To create – to make something new or original that did not exist before.
2. Technology – advanced scientific knowledge used for practical purposes, especially in industry.
3. To interpret – to understand an action, situation etc in a particular way.
4. Penetration – the act of getting inside something, especially past objects or substances that are intended to stop things getting inside.
5. To protect – to keep someone or something safe from harm, injury, damage, or loss.
6. The spacing grid of this invention functions in a fuel rod assembly as follows.
7. Goering was a prize recruit for a party which was still weak but in the process of vigorous development.
8. I’m forty-five – the age when a man begins to value some of the things he’s thrown away so lightly in youth, the clannishness of families, honor and security, roots that go deep.
9. Access to one or more mode of transportation can influence the pricing for oil produced from a particular field.
10. The story reaches people intellectually and emotionally and puts their lives into a larger context.
Information Security Takes Center Stage
Foreign hackers managed to plant malicious software packages – or "malware" – on networks supporting the U.S. electric grid, according to national security officials. As the grid and other critical systems become ever more dependent upon networked information technologies, they become increasingly vulnerable to attack by terrorists, industrial competitors, hostile foreign governments, and even casual hackers with the ability to shut them down using off-the-shelf equipment. No one has a greater appreciation of these threats than professor of computer engineering Doug Jacobson, director of Iowa State’s Information Assurance Program.
JACOBSON: "Some of the trends – and there’s a couple – one is how we’re using technology, and the power grid is a great example of that, and the new proposals for a smart grid, or the proposal for let’s make all health care records shareable across the country. As we rely more and more on the cyber infrastructure to run the world, that becomes a bigger and bigger target for people who are interested in doing harm." That’s just one reason information assurance is a growth industry worldwide, with rising demand for highly trained defenders to protect networks and the infrastructure they support. But more than training, Jacobson and his colleagues are actually reaching out to recruit the next generation of defenders through an annual cyber-defense competition, part of Iowa State’s IT Olympics competition that attracts hundreds of high-school students from across Iowa. Students like Forrest Scott, a sophomore from Mount Vernon whose team placed second in the 2008 competition.
FORREST: "Information technology is the battlefield of the future. I mean, no longer will people be using jets and tanks; they’ll be using servers and computers…the economy is based on computers. And if they can take the economy down, they can take down a country."
Over two days, Scott and his peers defended their networks from the relentless assaults of seasoned security experts from both industry and academia . The battlefield was Jacobson’s Internet-Scale Event and Attack Generation Environment – ISEAGE, for short – a unique, self-contained model internet in which both defenders and attackers can safely put their skills to the test.
JYOTHI: "Today is just a setup day, so we’re really just trying to get our system up and running. And I know I’m working on some documentation stuff with another girl on our team. But tomorrow, I believe, once we have our systems up, we’ll try to protect the network, as I said, and we’ll have – what we have every half hour, I believe, is what we call anomalies." Like Forrest Scott, Jyothi Dhanwada has been here before. In fact, the sophomore from Cedar Falls and her teammates swept both the cyber defense and community service fields of last year’s competition.
JYOTHI: "So we’ll have hackers trying to get in, we’ll be installing extra things on our system each half hour while maintaining the previous installs on the system that we have, so, very busy." But, according to assistant professor of computer engineering Tom Daniels, leader of the "red" team of attackers , even the students who ultimately win the competition will taste their measure of defeat.
DANIELS: "My job is to pick all the people who are relatively proficient at breaking into systems, because they do penetrations professionally or because they’re students who are very knowledgeable about security. I take them into a controlled environment where they can attack these guys…As leader of the red team, what I find out is, when I do the debriefing at the end of the day, they’ve lost machines we’ve taken over and done some pretty awful things to them, and I say, "well, look, you did a good job on these parts." But being a good guy is all about knowing all of these other pieces. You can’t lock all the doors and leave the back window open. And part of it is getting them to understand that there is a back door, or that there’s even a latch back there." If that sounds like a baptism by fire, it’s meant to be. But the students don’t mind: they’re here to learn and they take their lessons with a healthy dose of good humor.
KATIE JENSEN: "We’re gonna get destroyed. They’ve been doing this for what? Six years? Four years? We’ve only been doing this for one. They’ve got a lot more experience, and we’re on the defensive end. So they’re probably going to win, but we’ll put up a good fight." Like novice chess players learning from grandmasters, the students know that only by going up against the best in the business can they elevate their own defensive game. But they know as well that they came to Iowa State not just to compete, but also to have a good time with like-minded peers while they learn.
JACOBSON: "Yeah, there’s a competition going on here – last night we had two hours of rock band going on. So it is a party with a competition; it’s a celebration. And so we really are focusing on what makes IT fun, what makes it enjoyable . As a career, networking with the other schools, learning that there’s a whole bunch of people interested in IT – maybe they didn’t realize that there’s a whole state full of people interested in that." By the second day of the event, though, the students know the party’s over – at least for the time being – as they compete in earnest, not just against other schools or Tom Daniels’ red team hackers, but against the limitations of their own knowledge and experience as well.
JYOTHI: "Overnight went fine; our systems when we got here went fine. We got them up and running, But recently we got an anomaly that wants us to have another port for users to log on from – it’s called an SSH port. And so now we’re choosing not to do that, because we believe it will endanger our web flag. I don’t know, it’s kind of a balancing act right now. But our main problems are incident reports. We’re trying to file more incident reports to earn more white team points. But they’re disappearing and we don’t know where they’re going, and we just had a block of incident reports that are lost right now. So we’re in a hectic position. We’re really busy and our team isn’t doing that great right now. But we’ll kick it in gear, and hopefully earn those points in the end."
FORREST: "Well, I was defining users right for the systems 32 Windows folder in our RDP server, and unfortunately, I also clicked "deny" on all users to access. And that one mistake cost me my RDP server. And so I tried to go through some repair disks and whatnot. But once you click that box and deny, you can’t get back in. So, unfortunately, I have to do a complete re-install, costing some points and time, of course."
FORREST: "We were looking really good at the beginning, but some things were a little weird. Like, once we got here and set up our network, some services weren’t working quite as well as they were before. And so no, we’re probably not looking at getting between first and third, but it’s still a good experience – I’ve learned so much this year." Most may never reach the varsity level of what Jacobson calls an "intramural" sport here at the competition. But while the cyber defense competition may encourage high school students to consider careers in IT, Jacobson is quick to underscore the value of the program for both students and their larger communities regardless of the fields they eventually enter.
JACOBSON: "We understand that most of these kids may not even go into security as a final job, but venues like that raise awareness and make them think about security, because a lot of attacks today, the other vector they use is becoming more and more personal – the phishing attacks , identity thefts, and so on. The soft spot in security really is people. And so the attackers know that, and they’re starting to attack people. And so by having more and more of the world basically understand security, the safer everybody’s going to be."
JYOTHI: "I think it’s a really great experience for students. And even if, you know, you don’t really think you’re interested in technology or you think you won’t be good at it, it’s something that everybody can learn… Forrest Scott’s Mount Vernon Windrunners rallied to place 6th in the field of 37 teams.
JYOTHI: …and it’s a great experience – especially for you girls out there. This is usually stereotyped as a boy’s thing, but we can come out here and show them up too!" Jyothi Dhanwada and her NU High teammates took first place for the second consecutive year.
JACOBSON: "It’s a fun event; it’s amazing to look at what these kids are doing."
Be creative: The best ad
Be motivated: Happiness is a journey!
We convince ourselves that life will be better after we get married, have a baby, then another.
Then we are frustrated that the kids aren't old enough and we'll be more content when they are.
After that we're frustrated that we have teenagers to deal with.
We will certainly be happy when they are out of that stage.
We tell ourselves that our life will be complete when our spouse gets his or her act together,
when we get a nicer car, are able to go on a nice vacation, when we retire.
The truth is, there's no better time to be happy than right now.
If not now ... when?
Your life will always be filled with challenges.
It's best to admit this to yourself and decide to be happy anyway.
One of my favorite quotes comes from Alfred D Souza ...
"For a long time it had seemed to me that life was about to begin.
But there was always some obstacle in the way,
something to be gotten through first,
some unfinished business, time still to be served, a debt to be paid.
Then life would begin.
At last it dawned on me that these obstacles were my life."
This perspective has helped me to see
that there is no way to happiness. Happiness is the way.
So, treasure every moment that you have.
And treasure it more because you shared it with someone special,
special enough to spend your time ...
and remember that time waits for no one ...
So stop waiting until you finish school
until you go back to school
until you lose ten pounds
until you gain ten pounds
until you have kids
until your kids leave the house
until you start work
until you retire
until you get married
until you get divorced
until Friday night
until Sunday morning
until you get a new car or home
until your car or home is paid off
until spring, until summer
until fall ... until winter
until you are off welfare
until the first or fifteenth
until your song comes on
until you've had a drink
until you've sobered up
until you die
until you are born again
to decide that there is no better time than right now to be happy
Happiness is a journey ... not a destination!
List of questions for discussion
1. What’s the difference between information and knowledge?
2. What information technology do you think is most important?
3. What kind of information is dangerous in the wrong hands?
4. Is there freedom of information in your country?
5. Do you often go to tourist information offices?
6. What important information are you carrying on you now?
7. What has the Internet done for information?
8. What is information overload?
9. What personal information about you should be confidential information?
10. What's the latest information?
11. What do you think "information economics" is?
12. What topics would you like to know more information about?
13. What is the information superhighway and why is it important?
14. Are you happy to be living in the "Information Age"?
15. How do you gather information?
Для обсуждения данной темы присоединяйтесь к разговорным клубам. Студентам индивидуального курса разговорные клубы предоставляются бесплатно. А если вы предпочитаете обучение в формате разговорных клубов, записывайтесь на групповые занятия.