Communication – коммуникация, связь
Audience – радиослушатели, телезрители
Broadcast – радио- или телевещание, трансляция
Information – информация, сообщения, сведения
Technologies – технологии
Distribution – распределение, раздача, распространение
Aerial – антенна
Editorial – редакторский, редакционный
Ethical – этичный, соблюдающий требования морали
Source – первоисточник, (перво)причина, источник (информации)
To reach – достигать, доходить, простираться
To ransmit – передавать, отдавать
To influence – оказывать влияние, влиять, воздействовать
To utilize – использовать, расходовать, употреблять
To report – давать отчёт для прессы, давать, вести репортаж, сочинять заметку
To edit – редактировать, готовить к печати
To contribute – сотрудничать (в газете, журнале)
To investigate – расследовать, собирать сведения
To bias – склонять, оказывать влияние (обычно плохое), настраивать
To plagiarize – заниматься плагиатом, списывать, выдавать (чужую работу, идею и т. п.) за свою
1. To transmit – to send out an electronic signal such as a radio or television signal.
2. Broadcast – a programme that can be seen or heard on radio or television.
3. To utilize – to use something.
4. Source – someone who provides information for a journalist.
5. To plagiarize – to take someone else’s work, ideas, or words, and use them as if they were your own.
6. I will update the audience in a few words.
7. In its early stages, the signal-integrity department must influence the company's design, layout, and manufacturing processes without any form of direct control over them.
8. Any unauthorized copying, distribution as well as publishing of this document for any use is prohibited.
9. I thought a moment. "It may be stretching my brief," but as I have power to investigate all matters involving the monastery I think I could extend that to enquiring about land sales they have made
10. A well-placed source says the minister will resign.
Ellen Wartella on Media Influence on Children
[Pomerance] You're watching Charter's Local Edition. Thank you so much for joining us. I'm Brad Pomerance, and our guest is Professor Elen Wartella and she is with the University of California at Riverside and you are an expert in an area near and dear to my heart . I have a five-year-old and a seven-year-old – they love watching television. And you are looking at then media's influence on children's development. What are you finding?
[Wartella] Well... the media are quite influential is what we find. I think, I think the most important thing for parents, what we need to tell parents, is that you should watch the amount of time that your children spend in front of the screen media. American Academia of Pediatrics recommends about two hours a day for kids over two.
[Pomerance] And that means media is television.
[Pomerance] Is internet.
[Wartella] Computers, that's right.
[Pomerance] Video games.
[Wartella] That's right.
[Pomerance] So two hours total. That seems actually kind of high to me.
[Wartella] Well... on average children spend more time then that. They spend over two-and-a-half , three hours, children under six.
[Pomerance] To me, that is unnacceptable.
[Wartella] I agree, it's a lot of time.
[Pomerance] But I can tell you as the father of five and a seven year old, it's quite a challenge.
[Wartella] It is a challenge. The other thing that you need to do is watch what they watch too and make sure that the content is appropriate for them. I'm a firm believer... of the school that says it's not just the amount of time that you spend it's what you're watching that matters.
[Pomerance] Why is it though that we see this epidemic in child... children obesity? And a lot of it is pointed to television. Whereas, when I was growing up, you know there was some chubby kids but not like today.
[Wartella] Right. I'm going to give you some statistic . In the 60's, about five percent of children between six and 19 were considered obese. By the early 2000's, that number had jumped to 16 percent and another 15 percent are at risk for being obese. The Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences in 2006, did an analysis of the relationship between food marketing and childhood obesity.
[Pomerance] That's the key.
[Wartella] That is absolutely the key. They found, indeed, that children's exposure to television advertising, for kids under 12, was both related to their food preferences, their food choices, their diets and most important, to adiposity, which is another word for fatness.
[Pomerance] And what's interesting is... my girls watch the Disney Channel, which is essentially commercial free, but if you watch other programming targeted to children, that do you have advertisements, it's always this kind of high-calorie, low-nutrition food choices.
[Wartella] Exactly right. If we were if marketing apples and vegetables we'd have a lot less – a lot fewer – problems. The fact is, the kind of foods that's marketed to children, are exactly what you said, they're high-calorie, low-nutrient, full of fat and sugar, and it's really causing havoc on our children's diets.
[Pomerance] I recently interviewed Sabrina Bryan, who is one of the Cheetah Girls, and she's got involved in an organization called the Alliance for healthier generation that's focusing on keeping kids active and making healthier choices. What do you think about celebrities getting involved in trying to send those positive messages?
[Wartella] I think that's terrific, you know... if... diet and ... weight is a function of both what you take in – the foods you eat – and the kind of energy you expend and to the extent that we get kids up and moving, we get them walking, we get them playing. It's a shame that schools don't have gyms anymore, they don't have recess because that really helped. So, I'm very much encouraging of that.
[Pomerance] I was telling Sabrina that... one of the reasons I enjoy her series of films, the Cheetah Girls, is when my girls watch it, they're dancing. So, at least they are moving. Professor, if you were to offer our parents, who are watching right now, some tips about interacting with the media and their children, what would you offer?
[Wartella] Well first of all, to pay attention to what kind of media your children are attending to. For really young children under the age of six, again, limit screen time to at least two hours a day. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no child under two in front of a screen. [Pomerance] Wow.
[Wartella] That sounds a little harsh, I know, for some parents , that's right. Particularly with baby medi, but watch what how much time spending and watch what they watch, make sure it's age appropriate.
[Pomerance] Professor, thank you so much for joining us. Such important and invaluable information.
[Wartella] Nice to be here.
[Pomerance] For Charter's Local Edition, I'm Brad Pomerance!
Be creative: The best ad
Be motivated: From Russia with love
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the communications trade union for which I then worked received several delegations from the emergent nations and we ran courses for them on how market economies operated and how free collective bargaining was conducted. As is my practice when lecturing to foreign audiences, I had my visual aids translated into the vernacular, so I used overhead slides in Russian, although of course I spoke in English and had an interpreter.
I cannot read the cyrillic alphabet and know very little Russian, so I just worked through my slides in order. However, there came a point when I could tell from the statistical data on the latest slide that, for the previous ten minutes, I had been speaking to the wrong slide. British students would have pointed this out in seconds, but none of the Russians had said a word.
I was perplexed and asked why nobody had told me that I had been speaking to the wrong slide. Eventually one brave soul volunteered an answer and the interpreter translated: "In our country, no one challenges the teacher".
Author: Roger Darlington
List of questions for discussion
1. Would you like to work for the media?
2. What do you think of the mass media?
3. What countries do you think have very good media and which have not so good media?
4. Why do people fear the media?
5. Should there be any censorship of the media?
6. Are reporters in today’s media lazy?
7. Do you think the media tries to manipulate people or change their views?
8. Is it a good idea for a country’s media to be controlled by the government?
9. Do you trust the media?
10. Does the media care more about truth or profits?
11. What do you think about countries that ban or restrict the media?
12. Do you always believe the media?
13. Is the media of your country biased towards the views of your government over the war on terror?
14. How is today’s media different from that of 30 years ago?
15. Can you think of any examples of the media being irresponsible?
Для обсуждения данной темы присоединяйтесь к разговорным клубам. Студентам индивидуального курса разговорные клубы предоставляются бесплатно. А если вы предпочитаете обучение в формате разговорных клубов, записывайтесь на групповые занятия.