Conflict – конфликт, столкновение
Aggression – нападение, агрессия, незаконное применение силы
Warfare – война, приёмы ведения войны
Weapon – орудие, оружие
Capitulation – капитуляция, сдача
Tactics – тактика
To promote – поддерживать, поощрять
To increase – увеличивать, усиливать
To organize – организовывать, планировать
To arm – вооружать, обеспечивать, снабжать оружием
To force – брать, форсировать
To fight – драться, сражаться, воевать
To cooperate – объединяться с кем-л.
To declare – заявлять, объявлять
To achieve – доводить до конца, выполнять
To coerce – (амер.) осуществлять силой или угрозами, добиваться путём принуждения
Isolationist – изоляционистский
Interdependent – взаимозависимый
Military – военный, воинский, армейский
Prolonged – длительный, затянувшийся, продолжительный
Does Trade Promote Peace?
Since the days of Adam Smith, many economists have argued that free trade benefits all nations by increasing their standards of living and wealth . Yet, there is another very important but commonly overlooked benefit of free trade, which is its ability to promote international peace. The Capitalist Peace Theory argues that free trade makes countries more commercially interdependent. This interdependence gives countries a strong incentive to keep hostilities low. Think about it: Countries that trade a lot with each other have a lot to lose if a war breaks out. Economists also argue that free trade and bargaining is a lot more cost-effective way of resolving international disputes and obtaining resources. War is a very costly way of going about doing the same thing. If we look at countries that trade a lot with each other, these are some of the countries that import many ideas from the rest of the world. So free trade comes with not just goods that you import from other countries, but it also comes with exchange of ideas and culture, making countries more tolerant of each other's differences and more understanding. Several empirical studies show that countries that trade a lot with each other are also less likely to go to war with each other. Yet, critics point out that World War I broke out after an increase in trade flows. However, research shows that trade flows rose before World War I as a result of lower transportation costs. Ships became faster and bigger, transportation costs became lower, trade increased as a result. At the same time, however, nations like France, Germany, and Russia increased their trade barriers. They became more isolationist and less interdependent . The result is World War I. As if predicting this outcome, Frederic Bastiat once wrote, "If goods can't cross borders, armies will." And we see this in the empirical evidence. The Global Peace Index measures internal and external peacefulness and ranks countries like Ireland, New Zealand, and Netherlands as being some of the most peaceful nations in the world. These are some of the most heavily trading nations in the world as well. In summary, economists argue that free trade not only makes nations more prosperous but also promotes world peace.
Be creative: The best ad
Be motivated: Chopsticks
A woman who had worked all her life to bring about good was granted one wish: "Before I die let me visit both hell and heaven." Her wish was granted.
She was whisked off to a great banqueting hall. The tables were piled high with delicious food and drink. Around the tables sat miserable, starving people as wretched as could be. "Why are they like this?" she asked the angel who accompanied her. "Look at their arms," the angel replied. She looked and saw that attached to the people's arms were long chopsticks secured above the elbow. Unable to bend their elbows, the people aimed the chopsticks at the food, missed every time and sat hungry, frustrated and miserable. "Indeed this is hell! Take me away from here!"
She was then whisked off to heaven. Again she found herself in a great banqueting hall with tables piled high. Around the tables sat people laughing, contented, joyful. "No chopsticks I suppose," she said. "Oh yes there are. Look – just as in hell they are long and attached above the elbow but look, here people have learnt to feed one another".
List of questions for discussion
1. What is a war dance and who does (used to do) them?
2. What do you think of the system of charging people with war crimes?
3. The Geneva Convention issued a list of the rules of war? What do you think these are? Does it seem strange to have rules for war?
4. How do you think current wars could be stopped?
5. What do you think future wars will be fought over?
6. Do you think there'd be fewer wars if all countries were ruled by women?
7. What would you do today if a war broke out in your country tomorrow?
8. Jose Narosky said: "In war, there are no unwounded soldiers." Do you agree with this?
9. Bertrand Russell said: "War does not determine who is right – only who is left." What do you think of this quote?
10. Why are some countries so eager to wage war, while others aren't?
11. What wars has your country fought in the recent past?
12. Would you fight in a war to save your country?
13. Would you like to work as a war correspondent?
14. Aeschylus said: "In war, truth is the first casualty." Do you agree with this?
15. Someone once said: "Join the Army, see the world, meet interesting people – and kill them." What do you think of this quote?
Для обсуждения данной темы присоединяйтесь к разговорным клубам. Студентам индивидуального курса разговорные клубы предоставляются бесплатно. А если вы предпочитаете обучение в формате разговорных клубов, записывайтесь на групповые занятия.